THEORY
Research & Scholarship

Aligning Teaching and Assessment to Curriculum Objectives
A 12-page practical article succinctly summarizing the principles and practice of OBTL. It also contains a very clear example of OBTL in practice.
Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning Teaching and Assessment to Curriculum Objectives. University College London. https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/id477_aligning_teaching_for_constructing_learning  
Aligning Teaching and Assessing to Course Objectives
Another practical article by Biggs summarizing the principles of OBTL, focusing on models and modes of assessment.
Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning Teaching and Assessing to Course Objectives.  In Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: New Trends and Innovations. University of Aveiro, 13-17 April, 2003.
http://www.josemnazevedo.uac.pt/proreitoria/docs/biggs.pdf
What the Student Does: teaching for enhanced learning
An excellent, easy-to-read summary of all aspects relating to OBTL and constructive alignment with practical examples given.
Biggs, J. (1999).  What the Student Does: teaching for enhanced learning. In Higher Education Research & Development, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp 57-75.
This article has been reproduced with essentially the same content on this site:
http://www.tcd.ie/teaching-learning/academic-development/assets/pdf/Biggs_1999_Teaching_for_enhanced_learning.pdf
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here
Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment
Explains the marriage between constructivism and instructional design in his own ‘constructive alignment’ system.
Biggs, J.B. (1996). Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment. In Higher Education, 32(3), 347-64
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10390961
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11289915
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15016917
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22301961
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22886123
Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning
Although the title of the book focuses on assessment, this book is an excellent introduction to and explanation of all the key principles of Constructive Alignment, suitable for both experienced and new lecturers. It explains the principles and purposes behind learner-centred assessment from a constructivist perspective. It also has practical and informative chapters on setting outcomes and aligning courses, different classroom assessment techniques, creating and using rubrics, assessing critical thinking and problem-solving skills and using portfolios.
Huba, Mary E, Jann E. Freed (2000) Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston : Allyn and Bacon
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10553500
Teaching for quality learning at university
The foundational textbook for OBTL at university level. It covers effective teaching and learning for today’s universities, explains how to design constructively aligned outcomes-based teaching and learning, and gives many examples of OBTL in practice.
Biggs, John B. & Catherine Tang. (2011) Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does (4th ed). Maidenhead : McGraw-Hill/Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University Press
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19165007
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19585825 or (Lingnan): http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19672881
Earlier versions of the same work can be found through HKALL on this page .
Outcome-based education : critical issues and answers
Spady is known as ‘The Father of OBE’ and was spearheading efforts in the 1990s in America to implement OBE. For serious scholars, this book goes into great detail about the theoretical bases behind OBE. It covers the various forms that OBE had taken in America and covers issues and controversies about its implementation.
Spady, William G. (1994) Outcome-based education : critical issues and answers. Arlington, Va. : American Association of School Administrators.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b13438428
Educating for Understanding
Gardner argues against a norm-referenced system and for an outcomes-based approach in this article. Written primarily for the American school context at the time, it is a very interesting and still timely read, discussing many issues related to how children learn, obstacles to their understanding, different types of education models and their effectiveness, and the idea of basing assessment around performances rather than standardized tests.
Gardner, Howard (1993) Educating for Understanding. In The American School Board Journal, July 1993, 20-24.
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15114477
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21007312
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b23128624
Trends in global higher education : tracking an academic revolution
This UNESCO report covers many aspects that are affecting higher education these days, such as globalization, quality assurance, professionalism, technology, distance education, and many, many other aspects, noting future trends. Chapter 9 on 'Teaching, Learning and Assessment' covers the rise of OBE.
Altbach, Philip G. (2010) Trends in global higher education : tracking an academic revolution. Report for the UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris : UNESCO Pub. ; Rotterdam ; Boston : Sense  
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18080046
Higher education in the learning society : report of the national committee
Also known as the Dearing Report, this represents the first majors steps towards the implementation of OBE in the UK.
National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (Great Britain). (1997) Higher education in the learning society : report of the national committee. The National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education.
Also available at: http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/dearing1997/dearing1997.html
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10373885
Teaching: International Perspectives
The main purpose of this book was to describe what was going on around the world in the area of university teaching and assessment. Its 18 chapters are divided into 4 sections: Issues of Instruction, Perspectives on Student Learning and Assessment, Training and Development of University Teachers, and Images of Policy, Structure and Organization.
Table of Contents : Z:\SHARE\Julie share\Online Repository\Contents tables\Completed TOCs
Forest, James J. F. (1998) University Teaching: International Perspectives. New York : Garland Pub.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10199957
The Bologna Process
The official website for the Bologna Process in European Higher Education. Last updated in 2010, it outlines plans and directions to upgrade higher education in Europe for the following ten years.
http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/
Tuning Education Structures in Europe
This massive project is linked with the Bologna Process. The Tuning Project specifically produces booklets for major subject areas and competencies which include generic and program level competencies/learning outcomes for each area. It has competency questionnaires for: Generic skills, Business, Chemistry, Education and European Studies.
http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/  
Adaptation of outcome-based learning in an undergraduate English education programme
A Research in Higher Education Journal article by Wang Lixun of the Hong Kong Institute of Education, dealing mainly with Developing Program and Course ILOs.
Wang, L. (2011).Adaptation of outcome-based learning in an undergraduate English education programme. In Research in Higher Education Journal, 12.
Also published at: http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/11850.pdf
HKALL record for eJournal: click here  
Search PolyU Experience
On this handy site, you can search by keyword, faculty/school or type of learning outcome to read the experiences of a variety of staff sharing about implementation of OBA in their respective courses.
http://www.polyu.edu.hk/obe/03_2_r_Search_PolyU_Experience.php?action=listAll
Teaching for quality learning at university: Constructive Alignment in implementation
The foundational textbook for OBTL at university level. It covers effective teaching and learning for today’s universities, explains how to design constructively aligned outcomes-based teaching and learning, and gives many examples of OBTL in practice. Chapters 13-14 cover the principles behind implementation of constructive alignment and give many real-life examples.
Biggs, John B. & Catherine Tang. Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does (4th ed). Maidenhead : McGraw-Hill/Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University Press, 2011
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19165007
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19585825 or (Lingnan): http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19672881
Earlier versions of the same work can be found through HKALL on this page .
Understanding by Design
This book presents a ‘UbD’ (Understanding by Design) framework for educators, which is essentially OBE in different terminology. It explains in detail with many practical examples the principles and steps behind every aspect of implementing constructively aligned curricula and assessments.
Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe (2001) Understanding by Design. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Merrill/Prentice Hall
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10070905 or
http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12482550 (2005 version) or
http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14656612 (2005 version)
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14616349
Improving university teaching – learning from constructive alignment by *NOT* mandating it
This weblog by David Jones very thoughtfully draws on John Bigg’s model of 3 levels of teaching to draw the parallel that there are 3 levels of improving teaching whenever constructive alignment is implemented. He argues that most institutions are trying to implement OBE at level 2 but the best and only way to effectively implement OBE will be at level 3, which starts by teachers somehow being compelled to do regular reflection on their teaching practice. Without this, he argues that other steps taken will fail.
https://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/02/26/improving-university-teaching-learning-from-constructive-alignment-by-not-mandating-it/
Measuring Learning Outcomes for Programme Improvement: Easier said than done, but well worth the effort
This paper describes very clearly the ten-step practical implementation of OBE in the Faculty of Business in Lingnan University in Hong Kong, showing how it involved major organizational change and investment of resources over a period of several years. This is followed by a section elaborating on six factors that tended to make faculty resistant to implementing an outcomes-based approach, along with some partial solutions. The paper finishes with five corresponding ‘Supportive Institutional Forces’ which (at that time) were slowly driving the OBE agenda forward, then the next steps and further ways forward.
Chan, T. S. & Robin S. Snell. 2010. Measuring Learning Outcomes for Programme Improvement: Easier said than done, but well worth the effort. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Higher Education Quality Assurance at Macao Polytechnic Institute, 8-9 Nov, 2010.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19744664
Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning
This book discusses the principles and purposes behind learner-centred assessment. Chapters 1-2 especially present the learner-centre paradigm very effectively.
Huba, Mary E, Jann E. Freed (2000) Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston : Allyn and Bacon
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10553500
From teaching to learning-A new paradigm for undergraduate education
This informative article contrasts the ‘Teaching paradigm’ with the ‘Learning paradigm’, discussing important differences relating to mission and purposes, criteria for success, teaching/learning structures, learning theory, productivity/funding and nature of roles. It finishes with practical advice on how to meet the challenge of changing the paradigm of a professional or an institution.
Barr, R. B. & J. Tagg (1995) From teaching to learning-A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change 27(6), 13-25.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12693858
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12325659
Effects of student-Centred Teaching on Student Evaluations in Calculus
A large-scale research project contrasting the teacher and course evaluations of two groups of students, one group who was taught by traditional lecture-based teaching methods, and the other who was taught using student-centred methods, including cooperative learning, technology, pair, group, and class discussions, and contextualized, project-based learning. The students on the whole highly favoured the student-centred methodology over the traditional lecture methodology.
Keller, B.A, C.A. Russell & H. A. Thompson (1999). Effects of student-centred teaching on student evaluations in calculus. In Educational Research Quarterly, 23(1), 59-73.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14948810
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12967440
Student Learning as Academic Currency
This short booklet by the American Council on Education looks at what education would look like and what the policy implications would be if we were to use student learning, i.e. outcomes, to grant degrees, rather than the more traditional model of credit hours.
Johnstone, Sally M. Peter Ewell & Karen Paulson (2002) Student Learning as Academic Currency, Washington, D.C. : American Council on Education
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10164095

Mostly focused on constructivism, as this is what OBE is – ‘constructive alignment’.

General discussions

Cognitive conceptions of learning
Looks at several theories from psychology of cognitive conceptions of learning and how these may affect both learning and teaching and guide research in these areas. Also discusses and compares behavioural conceptions of learning.
Shuell, T.J. (1986). Cognitive conceptions of learning. Review of Educational Research, 56, 411-436.
For HKALL records for the Journal & eJournal, click here .
Learning Theories, Developmental Stages and Rubrics
This book includes chapters on how to effectively write and use rubrics for all levels of learners from primary school children up to adults as well as special needs students. Its special features include explanation of how rubrics fit with various learning theories (ch 1) and developmental stages (ch 3-8).
Quinlan, Audrey M. (2012) A complete guide to rubrics : assessment made easy for teachers of K-college. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Education.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19460493

Constructivism

Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning
This book discusses the principles and purposes behind learner-centred assessment from a constructivist perspective. The first two chapters in particular give a good overview of the principles of constructivist learning theory.
Huba, Mary E, Jann E. Freed (2000) Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston : Allyn and Bacon
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10553500
In search of understanding the case for constructivist classrooms
Presents the case for constructivist teaching, set against the backdrop (of the mid-1990s in the USA) of the implementation of a managerial, top-down outcomes-based system. It is written in three sections: The call for constructivism, some guiding principles of constructivism and creating constructivist settings.
Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon & Martin G. Brooks. (2001) In search of understanding the case for constructivist classrooms : with a new introduction by the authors. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Merrill/Prentice Hall.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14337593 or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10069138
Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction
Duffy, T. M. & D. J. Cunningham (2004) Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction. In Jonassen, David H. (Ed.) Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, Mahwah, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11875502
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14636796
Constructivism : theory, perspectives, and practice
A collection of writings on different aspects of constructivism, broadly categorized into three areas: Theory, disciplinary perspectives and classroom practice.
Fosnot, Catherine Twomey (Ed.) (2005) Constructivism : theory, perspectives, and practice, New York : Teachers College Press
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12487439
Theories of Knowledge and Instructional Design
Cobb replies to a critique by Jerry Colliver of constructivism in education. He discusses various versions of constructivism and outlines what he terms a ‘pragmatic version’ and how it directly aids a general orientation within which to conceptualize issues of teaching, learning and instructional design.
Cobb, Paul (2002). Theories of Knowledge and Instructional Design: A Response to Colliver, In Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 14(1), 52-55
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12415915
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15627688
From Theory to Practice: A Cognitive Systems Approach
This article recognizes that theories of teaching and learning all exist within systems, at several levels – student, classroom, institution and community. Good teaching practices must match the context. Constructivism is taken as the core position, and implications for improving teaching and assessment are discussed.
Biggs, J. B. (1993). From Theory to Practice: A Cognitive Systems Approach. In Higher Education Research and Development, 12(1), 73-85. For
HKALL record for Journal and eJournal, click here .
Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment
Explains the marriage between constructivism and instructional design in his own ‘constructive alignment’ system.
Biggs, J.B. (1996). Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment. In Higher Education, 32(3), 347-64
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10390961
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11289915
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15016917
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22301961
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22886123
Promoting Learning and Understanding through Constructivist Approaches for Chinese Learners
Rich in references, this chapter considers whether constructivist approaches are relevant for Chinese students and teachers, discussing three classroom studies conducted in Hong Kong. It concludes that it constructivist approaches are effective in enhancing student learning.
Chan, Carol K.K. (Promoting Learning and Understanding through Constructivist Approaches for Chinese Learners. In Watkins, David A & John Biggs. (2001) Teaching the Chinese learner : psychological and pedagogical perspectives. Hong Kong : Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong ; Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Council for Educational Research, pp 181-204
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10156472

Blooms’ Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy
This is an excellent introduction to the old and new taxonomies with links to other relevant sites.
http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/
Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
A book written as a tribute to John Biggs, it has 11 chapters written by different contributors, based around conceptions of teaching and approaches to learning in higher education. Several of the chapters deal with how to apply the SOLO Taxonomy in teaching and learning.
Dart, Barry & Gillian Boulton-Lewis (1998) Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Melbourne : Australian Council for Educational Research
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10452303
Student Approaches to Learning: The Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire
An instrument to evaluate students’ use of deep versus surface learning approaches.
Biggs J.B., Kember, D., & Leung D.Y.P. (2001) The Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 71, 133-149
With brief explanation at: http://www.johnbiggs.com.au/academic/students-approaches-to-learning/
The full article with Questionnaire at the end: http://www.johnbiggs.com.au/pdf/ex_2factor_spq.pdf
The R-SPQ-2F Questionnaire: http://chtl.hkbu.edu.hk/fre/SPQ_Questionnaire.pdf
HKALL record for Journal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10004361
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12968119
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b23026072
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12392262
Student approaches to learning and studying
This is another seminal work by Biggs which summarizes the research up to that time on student approaches to learning, introduces, test and validates the SPQ (Study Process Questionnaire, the predecessor to the revised version), and discusses its implications for practice. This work would be relevant to teachers, counsellors/advisors as well as researchers.
Biggs, John B. (1987) Student approaches to learning and studying. Melbourne : Australian Council for Educational Research
For HKALL records for the original journal , click here.
Approaches to the Enhancement of Tertiary Teaching
Covers different approaches to both teaching and learning and their implications for teaching at tertiary level.
Biggs, J. (1989) Approaches to the Enhancement of Tertiary Teaching, Higher Education Research & Development, Vol 8, No 1, 1989
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here
Assessing the impact of learning environments on students' approaches to learning: comparing conventional and action learning designs
This research found that students taking an action learning-based course tended to adopt a deeper approach to learning than those taking the same course in a more conventional way.
Wilson, Keithia and Jane Fowler (2005) Assessing the impact of learning environments on students' approaches to learning: comparing conventional and action learning designs. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education Vol. 30, No. 1, February 2005, 87-101
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .
Learning to Teach in Higher Education
This book is written to improve the quality of teaching and learning in higher education by showing how teachers can improve their capacity to influence students’ learning. Both approaches to learning and theories and strategies of teaching are covered; solutions are given for common problems with different kinds of teaching methods.
Ramsden, Paul. (2003). Learning to Teach in Higher Education (2nd ed). London ; New York : RoutledgeFalmer
For HKALL records for the book & online books , click here .
Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
A book written as a tribute to John Biggs, it has 11 chapters written by different contributors, based around conceptions of teaching and approaches to learning in higher education.
Dart, Barry (1998) Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Melbourne : Australian Council for Educational Research
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10452303
Approaches to Learning
A book chapter which covers research into the changing approaches to learning, including motivation, conceptions of learning, and Biggs’ SOLO Taxonomy. The other chapters in this book may also be relevant to this topic.
Marton, Ference & Roger Saljo (1997). Approaches to Learning. In Marton, Ference, Dai Hounsell & Noel Entwistle (Eds) The Experience of Learning: Implications for Teaching and Studying in Higher Education. Edinburgh : Scottish Academic Press.
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11157098
Understanding learning and teaching : the experience in higher education
A highly recommended book which looks at approaches to both teaching and learning. It focuses on the various factors affecting the success of student learning, which enables teachers to research and improve their own teaching.
Prosser, Michael & Keith Trigwell (1999) Understanding learning and teaching : the experience in higher education. Buckingham [England] ; Philadelphia, PA : Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10287279
Applying the Science of Learning to the University and Beyond: Teaching for Long-Term Retention and Transfer
This article brings together the knowledge of a number of experts in the learning sciences, outlining ten basic principles teachers need to apply for genuine knowledge transfer to take place and for their students to retain that knowledge in the long-term.
Halpern Diane F. & Milton D. Hakel (2003) Applying the Science of Learning to the University and Beyond: Teaching for Long-Term Retention and Transfer. In Change July/August 2003
http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic38998.files/Halpern_Halek.pdf
How people learn : brain, mind, experience, and school
This book reports on research into learning from many different branches of science and culture. It examines what is taught, how it is taught, and how learning can be assessed, in both children and adults. It is followed by the book (below) ‘How people learn: bridging research and practice.’
Bransford, John D, Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking (Eds.) (1999) How people learn : brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC : National Academy Press  
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10447078
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10698143
HKALL record for 2000 expanded edition: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11117203
HKALL record for 2000 expanded eBook edition: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10682341
How people learn : bridging research and practice
This small book summarizes the key findings from the book (above) ‘How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school,’ relates them to classroom practice and proposes an educational research and development agenda.
Donovan, M. Suzanne, John D. Brandsford & James W. Pellegrino (Eds.) (1999) How people learn : bridging research and practice. Washington, DC : National Academy Press  
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b25465150
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10497990
Teaching the Chinese learner : psychological and pedagogical perspectives
This book aims to fill the research gaps relating to Chinese learners by looking specifically at various aspects of the context of teaching Chinese learners. It is divided into three sections: Teacher’s thinking, teaching practices and changing teachers. In the process it also takes into account students conception of and approaches to learning and how these all affect the learning outcomes, and it finishes with a chapter on insights into teaching the Chinese learner.
Watkins, David A & John Biggs. (2001) Teaching the Chinese learner : psychological and pedagogical perspectives. Hong Kong : Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong ; Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Council for Educational Research
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10156472
Learning to teach in Higher Education
This book is recommended by Prof John Biggs as an introduction to or refresher for teaching at university because of its focus on student-centred teaching. It links theory with practice and covers approaches to learning, theories of teaching and learning, how to design teaching and assessing for learning, and improving and evaluating the quality of higher education.
Ramsden (1992) Learning to teach in Higher Education . London: Routledge
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10031161
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14647653
Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
A book written as a tribute to John Biggs, it has 11 chapters written by different contributors, based around conceptions of teaching and approaches to learning in higher education.
Dart, Barry (1998) Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Melbourne : Australian Council for Educational Research
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10452303
Understanding learning and teaching : the experience in higher education
A highly recommended book which looks at approaches to both teaching and learning. It focuses on the various factors affecting the success of student learning, which enables teachers to research and improve their own teaching.
Prosser, Michael & Keith Trigwell (1999) Understanding learning and teaching : the experience in higher education. Buckingham [England] ; Philadelphia, PA : Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10287279
Approaches to the Enhancement of Tertiary Teaching
Covers different approaches to both teaching and learning and their implications for teaching at tertiary level.
Biggs, J. (1989) Approaches to the Enhancement of Tertiary Teaching. In Higher Education Research & Development, Vol 8, No 1, 1989 For
HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here
Teaching the Chinese learner : psychological and pedagogical perspectives
This book aims to fill the research gaps relating to Chinese learners by looking specifically at various aspects of the context of teaching Chinese learners. It is divided into three sections: Teacher’s thinking, teaching practices and changing teachers. In the process it also takes into account students conception of and approaches to learning and how these all affect the learning outcomes and it finishes with a chapter on insights into teaching the Chinese learner.
Watkins, David A & John Biggs. (2001) Teaching the Chinese learner : psychological and pedagogical perspectives. Hong Kong : Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong ; Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Council for Educational Research
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10156472
Teaching Strategies for Quality Teaching and Learning
Originally published in 2000 under the title of ‘Teaching strategies for outcomes-based education’, the strength of this book is in chapters 5-14 which discuss both theory and practice of several different kinds of TLAs in an outcomes-based system for better student outcomes. Various research studies have been synthesized and salient points summarized for each TLA. Covered in each chapter respectively are: lecturing, discussing, small-group work, co-operative learning, problem solving, learner research, role-play, case study and writing; there is also a chapter on assessment. Although written for the South African primary and secondary school context, the majority of the material is equally applicable to the higher education context.
Killen, Roy (2010) Teaching strategies for quality teaching and learning. Claremont [South Africa] : Juta
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22702594 (HKU)
HKALL record for 2000 book: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15510188
Teaching for quality learning at university: Teaching/learning activities
The foundational textbook for OBTL at university level. It covers effective teaching and learning for today’s universities, explains how to design constructively aligned outcomes-based teaching and learning, and gives many examples of OBTL in practice. Chapters 8 & 9 cover different kinds of teaching and learning tasks.
Biggs, John B. & Catherine Tang. Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does (4th ed). Maidenhead : McGraw-Hill/Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University Press, 2011
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19165007
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19585825 or (Lingnan): http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19672881
Earlier versions of the same work can be found through HKALL on this page .
What's the use of lectures?
This book covers both the theory and practice of lecturing. Parts 1 and 2 are basically a literature review on studies of lecturing, recommending that it be used in conjunction or alternation with other teaching methods. Parts 3, 4 and 5 are more practical.  Part 3 gives advice on lecture techniques; part 5 gives advice on lecture preparation. Chapters 19 and 20 of Part 4 may be of the most practical help, outlining some teaching methods to use with lectures, and proposing various combinations of teaching methods.
Bligh, Donald (1998) What’s the use of lectures? Imprint Oxford : Intellect.
Bligh, Donald (2000) What’s the use of lectures? San Francisco : Jossey-Bass Publishers
For HKALL record for book and eBook click here .

The basic concept of Student Voice in Teacher Development is that student voices should be included or consulted in as many areas of higher education as possible - from classroom practices and teaching (such as the Student Consultant Program at Lingnan University) to research, curriculum development and educational reforms. Students are usually the recipients of change; Student Voice projects believe that they should be treated instead as “agents of change” because they co-create knowledge, teaching and institutions with staff (teachers, administrators, faculty as well as policy makers).

Student Voice is related to OBE in that usually educators have a specific set of outcomes that they would like to achieve and they design their assignments, content and syllabi etc. in order to achieve those outcomes. A Student Voice project might consult students in their understanding of learning goals and solicit student feedback and collaboration on the design of assignments that best enable them to achieve these outcomes. At stake is a respect for students' expertise as students and education as a partnership between students and teachers.

Thanks to Professor Elizabeth Ho of Lingnan University for this description of Student Voice.

Due to copyright issues, only staff of the UGC-funded institutes in Hong Kong can access this section. For the password, please email the Centre Manager from your institution's email account.


Action research / CATs (Classroom Assessment Techniques)

Themes in Education: Action Research
If you know little about Action Research, start with this booklet. In simple, concise language it gives a definitive introduction to, brief history and overview of action research – what it is, what it isn’t, steps to take, some example action research projects, FAQs, etc.
Ferrance, Eileen (2000) Themes in Education: Action Research. Providence, RI: Brown University http://www.brown.edu/academics/education-alliance/sites/brown.edu.academics.education-alliance/files/publications/act_research.pdf
Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers
This hefty but very practical manual covers in detail 50 different CATs  you can use to assess how and what students are learning. It also describes the research project cycle, and explains how to overcome common difficulties. Pages 109 to 114 contain handy list of CATs indexed alphabetically, by discipline and by outcomes.
Angelo, T. A. & K. Patricia Cross. (1993) Classroom Assessment Techniques: a Handbook for College Teachers. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass Publishers.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10127897
Classroom research : implementing the scholarship of teaching
This volume is designed to follow on from Angelo and Cross’s ‘Classroom Assessment Techniques’ (above), to give teachers a pathway into the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. It details a collaborative process for investigating teaching and learning issues and covers research and theory on learning issues and gives examples of classroom assessment and research projects.
Cross, K. Patricia & Mimi Harris Steadman (1996) Classroom research : implementing the scholarship of teaching, San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, c1996.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10597598
Action research : teachers as researchers in the classroom (1st & 2nd ed)
Action research : improving schools and empowering educators (3rd & 4th ed)
Although written for primary and high school teachers, this is a very practical book that provides an overview of various kinds of action research and walks the reader step by step through each stage of the process.
Mertler, Craig A (2009) Action research : teachers as researchers in the classroom (2nd ed), Los Angeles : Sage
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b16478100
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14581998 (2006 version)
Mertler, Craig A (2014) Action research : improving schools and empowering educators (4th ed), Los Angeles : Sage
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214900
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18207069 (2012 version)
Action Research in brief
This is a short article that introduces some different traditions of action research in general (including in the field of education) and some of the key literature in the field.
Smith, M. K. (1996; 2001, 2007) ‘Action research’, the encyclopedia of informal education. http://infed.org/mobi/action-research  
Action Research into the Quality of Student Learning: A Paradigm for Enhancing the Quality of Learning
This short booklet was published as part of an ‘Action Learning Project’ which was funded by the (then) University and Polytechnic Grants Committee (UPGC; the UGC now).  It uses a combination of the interpretive and critical epistemological positions to provide the theoretical rationale for faculty undertaking action research into their own teaching. It makes a case for colleagues collaborating in action research and then sharing the results through publishing. At the end a concise 7-point summary is made on the practical aspects of doing action research.
Kember, David. (1994) Action Research into the Quality of Student Learning: A Paradigm for Enhancing the Quality of Learning. Hong Kong: Educational Development Unit, Hong Kong Polytechnic.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10461701
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12404943
Action Research into the Quality of Student Learning: A Paradigm for Faculty Development
This is a longer version of the Kember booklet with a similar title (above) relating to the early HKPU (UGC) ‘Action Learning Project’, adding a detailed ‘Case Study: Promoting Educational Change Within a Department.’
Kember, David & Jan McKay. (1996) Action Research into the Quality of Student Learning: A Paradigm for Faculty Development. In The Journal of Higher Education 67(5 Sep-Oct), pp 528-554.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2943867?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Action Learning Project (Hong Kong)
These articles/reports summarize the outcomes of the 90 Action Learning Projects undertaken by all institutions in two rounds as a part of the UPGC ‘ALP’ (Action Learning Project) in the 1990’s.
http://celt.ust.hk/files/public/6b421-434.pdf -  The Outcomes of the Action Learning Project - by David Kember
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09650790200200174 - Kember, David (2002) Long-term outcomes of educational action research projects, In Educational Action Research, 10:1, 83-104, DOI: 10.1080/09650790200200174
http://celt.ust.hk/files/public/zpbiggs_and_lam495-509.pdf  - Enhancing Tertiary Teaching Through Action Learning: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Action Learning Project by John Biggs & Raymond Lam
http://www.ln.edu.hk/osl/newhorizon/abstract/v38/10.pdf - Enhancing Teaching through Action Learning: Helping Innovation in Hong Kong - journal article by John Biggs & Raymond Lam – has some useful stats
http://cei.ust.hk/files/public/6a405-420.pdf  - The Suitability of action research for enhancing the quality of teaching in Hong Kong – journal article by David Kember
Feedback: How learning occurs
This is a very easy-to-read chapter in a book on assessment. It explains how and why regular feedback is necessary, for improving both students’ and teachers’ performances.
Chaffee E. E. et al. (1997) Assessing impact : evidence and action, Washington, DC : American Association for Higher Education, pp 31-39.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b25462696
Christian Faculty Teaching Reflective Practice: An Action Based Research Approach to Learning
The article reports the final results of a collaborative action research project that devised a reflective approach to theological education.
Wong, Arch Chee Keen (2009) Christian Faculty Teaching Reflective Practice: An Action Based Research Approach to Learning. Ambrose University College, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Christian Higher Education, 8:173–186
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12377530
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15632968
The ‘Mini-Viva’ as a Tool to Enhance Assessment for Learning
This paper reports on an action research project undertaken for the purpose of promoting assessment for learning within a summative assignment. The process of this assignment project included collegial and student feedback, student self-evaluation and a focus group interview, with the emphasis being on the effectiveness of a ‘mini-viva’ towards the end of the learning process.
Carless, David R. (2002) The ‘Mini-Viva’ as a Tool to Enhance Assessment for Learning. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 27, No. 4 For
HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .
Learner-centered assessment on college campuses … Using Feedback from students to improve learning
This book discusses the principles and purposes behind learner-centred assessment. Chapter 5 includes different classroom assessment techniques aimed at using feedback from students to improve their learning.
Huba, Mary E, Jann E. Freed (2000) Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston : Allyn and Bacon
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10553500
Academic initiatives in total quality for higher education
This volume contains many articles on experiments in ‘total quality’. Some relate to research; those which relate to teaching focus on different ways of implementing ‘two-way fast feedback’ in the classroom for continuous improvement of teaching and learning.
Roberts, Harry V. (Ed) (1995) Academic initiatives in total quality for higher education, Milwaukee, Wis.: ASQC Quality Press.
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10367331
Questionnaire Construction for Student Feedback
This is a one-page document giving advice on how to word open-ended questions to get the best quality and focused feedback possible from students. The questions here are particularly suited for action research.
http://tag.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Questionnaire-Construction-for-Student-Evaluation.pdf
Practical research and evaluation : a start-to-finish guide for practitioners
This book is a starter text aimed at educators or post-graduate students conducting research into their own professional practice. The 14 chapters go through the process from design through data collection and analysis to dissemination of the results. Chapter 7 (‘Action Research’ by Scott Fernie and Karen Smith) provides a good overview specifically of classroom Action Research.
Dahlberg, Lena & Colin McCaig (2010) Practical research and evaluation : a start-to-finish guide for practitioners. London : SAGE
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b17604206

The reflective practitioner

Also see under ‘Best Practice’ – ‘Reflecting on your own teaching’ – for practical resources.

Reflective practice

Reflection4Learning
A large site covering both theory and practice, with multiple resources and links to other sites on reflection. There are various models of reflection presented, with pages for students and teachers at all levels of schooling, as well as reflection specifically for Service Learning,
https://sites.google.com/site/reflection4learning/Home
A Taxonomy of Reflection: The Reflective Teacher
A very simple but clear site that applies Bloom’s Taxonomy to provide guiding questions to help teachers and program directors reflect on their own teaching and learning processes and decisions. It also includes a page to show teachers how to guide self-reflection in their students.
Part 1 – Taxonomy: http://www.peterpappas.com/2010/01/taxonomy-reflection-critical-thinking-students-teachers-principals.html
Part 2 – The Reflective Student: http://www.peterpappas.com/2010/01/reflective-student-taxonomy-reflection-.html
Part 3 – The Reflective Teacher: http://www.peterpappas.com/2010/01/reflective-teacher-taxonomy-reflection.html
Part 4 – The Reflective Principal: http://www.peterpappas.com/2010/01/reflective-principal-taxonomy-reflection.html
Reflecting on your Teaching Practice
This post includes questions to help teachers reflect on their teaching practice, especially when needing to prepare for evaluations. These are listed under 4 headings: Professionalism, Planning for Instruction, Assessment, and The Learning Environment. https://kbarnstable.wordpress.com/2009/12/15/22-questions-for-reflection/
Self-Evaluation (for teachers)
This site from University of Warwick argues that self-evaluation should precede other forms of evaluation and is the hallmark of an effective teacher. The page has links to several documents to help teachers reflect on their teaching practices and professional growth.
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/ldc/resource/evaluation/tools/self/
Learning Journal for Teachers
Some excerpts from two of Geoff Petty’s books (Teaching Today and Evidence Based Teaching) explaining how and why to use a Learning Journal to reflect on your ‘theory-in-use’ and improve your teaching.
Click Here to download
Becoming a critically reflective teacher
In the author’s own words, this is a book for ‘all teachers who think about their practice’ (p xiv). It explains what critical reflection is and why it is so important. He looks at it from the perspective of a teacher through four lenses: teachers’ autobiographical reflection taking various forms, feedback from his students through use of various tools, feedback from collaboration with colleagues in a variety of ways and knowing how to appropriately use the literature on research, theory and philosophy.  The book finishes with advice on how to minimize the risks involved, and how to set up a culture that supports critically reflective thinking.
Brookfield, Stephen. (1995) Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12879059
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10308466
On becoming an innovative university teacher : reflection in action
Recommended by Biggs, this book aims to help both teachers and students by dealing with reflective teaching and learning in higher education. Each chapter answers a different question commonly asked by university teachers, such as ‘What can you do to encourage students to reflect?’. Multiple examples are given to illustrate different ways the question could be answered.
Cowan, John (2006) On becoming an innovative university teacher : reflection in action. Buckingham : Society for Research into Higher education & Open University Press.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14898561
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14866651
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10324830 (1998 version)
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b16561895
Teaching as learning : an action research approach
A very philosophical book; McNiff writes about her own personal teacher training and development journey to taking on a collaborative, reflective action research approach to education as a lifestyle. ‘This shift expands a view of research as the basis for improved practice to a view of self-improving practice as research’ (p 11). Teacher education should aim to produce ‘individual self-reflexive practitioners’ (p 35). Part 3 (of 5 parts) is more practical with some personal experiences related by various teachers involved in action research. McNiff’s overall aim is ‘the construction of a community of self-reflective practitioners, learners at all levels of the community exercise, who are concerned for each individual’s realization of his or her own potential, and who care enough first to make an unqualified commitment of self to the education of self, in the interests of the education of others’ (p 21).
McNiff, Jean (1993) Teaching as learning : an action research approach. London : Routledge.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10344179

Teaching Perspectives/Goals Inventories

Teaching Perspectives Inventory
Scroll down nearly half-way to find this section. Take the Inventory ‘test’ to find your ‘TPI Profile’ which shows how strongly  your beliefs, intentions and actions are as a teacher, and may help with reflecting on your teaching as well as writing a teaching philosophy statement for your teaching portfolio.
http://www.usask.ca/gmcte/resources/portfolio/links
Teaching Goals Inventory
From Angelo & Cross’ well-known 1993 book on ‘Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers’.
http://fm.iowa.uiowa.edu/fmi/xsl/tgi/data_entry.xsl?-db=tgi_data&-lay=Layout01&-view

Lingnan University Teaching Portfolio Resources

The Focussed Teaching Portfolio: A Guide for Academic Staff
This 2-page document is the best place to start if you want to prepare a Teaching Portfolio for specific job applications.
This Guide is available in the Lingnan Book Repository, as part of the 'Introduction to the Full Teaching Portfolio' listed next. Titles and information about the Lingnan Book Repository can be found on this page:
http://tlc.ln.edu.hk/caobe/resources/ln_book_repository
An Introduction to the Full Teaching Portfolio: A Guide for Academic Staff
This Guide is a fuller version, explaining in detail how to prepare a full Teaching Portfolio. It includes FAQs and examples.  The Full Teaching Portfolio should be maintained and updated regularly, and can be drawn from to put together a shorter, Focussed Teaching Portfolio when needed for a specific purpose.
This Guide is available in the Lingnan Book Repository. Titles and information about the Lingnan Book Repository can be found on this page:
http://tlc.ln.edu.hk/caobe/resources/ln_book_repository

eBooks

The teaching portfolio: a practical guide to improved performance and promotion/tenure decisions, 4th ed.
Seldin is the most oft-quoted expert on teaching portfolios. This book is an extremely comprehensive practical guide to everything you would ever need to know about compiling and using a teaching portfolio. It includes 21 sample portfolios from across different disciplines, plus answers many common questions about the creation and uses of portfolios.
Seldin, Peter; Miller, J. Elizabeth, Seldin, Clement A. (2010) The teaching portfolio: a practical guide to improved performance and promotion/tenure decisions, 4th ed., San Francisco : Jossey-Bass
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b17937851

Library Books

The teaching portfolio: a practical guide to improved performance and promotion/tenure decisions, 4th ed.
Seldin is the most oft-quoted expert on teaching portfolios. This book is an extremely comprehensive practical guide to everything you would ever need to know about compiling and using a teaching portfolio. It includes 21 sample portfolios from across different disciplines, plus answers many common questions about the creation and uses of portfolios.
Seldin, Peter (2010) The teaching portfolio: a practical guide to improved performance and promotion/tenure decisions, 4th  ed., San Francisco : Jossey-Bass
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b17937851
For HKALL records for previous versions, click here.
Successful use of teaching portfolios
Seldin is the most oft-quoted expert on teaching portfolios. This 1993 book is a slightly shorter version of his more expanded later book ‘The teaching portfolio: a practical guide to improved performance and promotion/tenure decisions’. This earlier version is also a comprehensive and practical guide with sample portfolios from teachers of different majors, and a section on commonly-asked questions.
Seldin, Peter (1993) Successful use of teaching portfolios. Bolton, Mass. : Anker Pub.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10098721
Campus use of the teaching portfolio: twenty-five profiles.
This book is more for those who need to make decisions about teaching portfolio use in their institutions, rather than individual teachers needing to create one. It describes the use of teaching portfolios by 25 campuses in America. Each campus takes 2-3 pages to briefly cover their current scope and status of portfolio use, guidelines for design and contents, portfolio evluation, obstacles to its use, impact and advice for other campuses. The introduction lists 9 points relevant to institutional and personal use of portfolios.
Anderson, Erin (Ed.) (1993) Campus use of the teaching portfolio: twenty-five profiles. Washington, DC : American Association for Higher Education.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14255276
The teaching portfolio: capturing the scholarship in teaching.
This book aimed to provoke new conversations about teaching as a scholarly act in its own right, through the promotion of the use of teaching portfolios.  It sets forth the case for using portfolios, covers important design issues, and includes a range of illustrative portfolio entries as samples.
Edgerton, Russell, Patricia Hutchings & Kathleen Quinlan (1995) The teaching portfolio: capturing the scholarship in teaching.  Washington, DC : American Association for Higher Education.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12316891 or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10194991
The digital teaching portfolio handbook: a how-to guide for educators.
Describes digital teaching portfolios - their advantages and challenges when compared to conventional portfolios and the benefits to teacher training programs, teachers, schools and principals. There are several detailed chapters on the 'how to' of planning, designing, evaluating and publishing your digital teaching portfolio, advice on software use, hardware recommendations and principles of graphic design.
Kilbane, Clare R. & Natalie B. Milman (2003) The digital teaching portfolio handbook: a how-to guide for educators. Boston : Allyn and Bacon.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11122465
A beginning teaching portfolio handbook: documenting and reflecting on your professional growth and abilities.
This comprehensive volume is aimed at helping preservice teachers put together an effective portfolio. Each chapter is based around how to collect relevant 'artifacts' (evidence) of teaching and how to write meaningful reflective statements, according to 10 quality teaching principles as listed by INTASC (Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium). There are also chapters on reflective analysis and preparing a digital portfolio.
Foster, Bill R. Jr, Michael L. Walker & Kin Hyunsook Song (2007) A beginning teaching portfolio handbook: documenting and reflecting on your professional growth and abilities. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Merrill/Prentice Hall.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14993509
Creating your teaching portfolio: presenting your professional best.
As its title suggests, this book covers the questions of why we should use teaching portfolios, what we should put in them, how to go about putting them together and how they should look. Small but packed with information, it is written for school teachers but the principles would still apply to higher education. The book also includes examples of possible portfolio entries, some information on electronic portfolios and sections on the importance of reflection, how to present your philosophy of education and how to use standards (i.e. outcomes) to organise your portfolio.
Rieman, Patricia L. & Jeanne Okrasinski (2007) Creating your teaching portfolio: presenting your professional best.  Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Merrill/Prentice Hall.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15194449
Developing a teaching portfolio: a guide for preservice and practicing teachers.
This book is a guide for preservice and practicing teachers alike, explaining different types of portfolios, their uses and purposes, and how each type would be developed. The first part focuses on the creation of portfolios for students and new teachers, while the second part goes into many more of the specifics of writing portfolios for a variety of different situations. This revised third edition also includes case studies, following teachers through their careers, and also has many portfolio examples, both paper-based and digital.
Adams-Bullock, Ann & Parmalee P Hawk (2010) Developing a teaching portfolio: a guide for preservice and practicing teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson education.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b17130943
For HKALL records for earlier versions, click here.
Developing a professional teaching portfolio: a guide for success.
This book offers practical yet comprehensive guidelines for developing both the traditional paper-based and the electronic teaching portfolio.  It shows how to design your portfolio around a standards-based (i.e. outcomes-based) framework, how to document various aspects of your teaching practice, how to evaluate your portfolio and includes nearly 100 sample real-life portfolio entries.
Costantino, Patricia M. (2009) Developing a professional teaching portfolio: a guide for success. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Mrttill/Pearson.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b16529901
For HKALL records for earlier versions, click here.

Online Journal Articles

Your Teaching Portfolio: Strategies for Initiating and Documenting Growth and Development
Provides an easily readable basic introduction to the concept of a teaching portfolio. Answers the questions why and how we should develop one, and what specifically should be included in a good portfolio. It also lists 7 principles of good practice and 5 dimensions of good teaching.
Ouellett, Mathew L. (2007) Your Teaching Portfolio: Strategies for Initiating and Documenting Growth and Development. In Journal of Management Education, 06/2007, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp. 421 – 433
HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here.
Teaching Portfolios and the Beginning Teacher
The author discusses the benefits of using a teaching portfolio, not the least of which is the process of writing and collecting documentation which promotes reflection, resulting in enhanced teaching. It gives practical advice for beginners putting together a portfolio, including the idea of using a mentor.
Zubizarreta, John (1994) Teaching Portfolios and the Beginning Teacher. In The Phi Delta Kappan, 12/1994, Volume 76, Issue 4, pp. 323 – 326
HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here.
Teaching Portfolios: Uses and Development
The authors note that the shift towards a student-centred constructivist paradigm has aided the development and use of the teaching portfolio to promote reflection and improve teaching effectiveness. It covers some controversy regarding the use and purposes of teaching portfolios, then goes on to define what a teaching portfolio is, describes its uses and provides guidelines and steps for developing one.
Babin, Laurie A; Shaffer, Teri Root; Tomas, Amy Morgan (2002) Teaching Portfolios: Uses and Development. In Journal of Marketing Education 04/2002, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp. 35 – 42
HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here.
Rethinking the Teaching Portfolio in a Learning-Outcomes Climate
A short article which basically suggests that in an outcomes-based climate, faculty should consider not just their individual effectiveness, but also their Department’s program goals (Program Intended Learning Outcomes) when designing their teaching portfolios.
Loeb, Robert (2011) Rethinking the Teaching Portfolio in a Learning-Outcomes Climate. In The American Biology Teacher, 04/2011, Volume 73, Issue 4, p. 205
HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here.

Open access webpages

Teaching Perspectives/Goals Inventories

Teaching Perspectives Inventory
Scroll down nearly half-way to find this section. Take the Inventory ‘test’ to find your ‘TPI Profile’ which shows how strongly your beliefs, intentions and actions are as a teacher, and may help with reflecting on your teaching as well as writing a teaching philosophy statement for your teaching portfolio.
http://www.usask.ca/gmcte/resources/portfolio/links
Teaching Goals Inventory
From Angelo & Cross’ well-known 1993 book on ‘Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers’.
http://fm.iowa.uiowa.edu/fmi/xsl/tgi/data_entry.xsl?-db=tgi_data&-lay=Layout01&-view

Teaching Philosophy statements

Sample teaching philosophy statements
These sites all have real-life examples of teaching philosophy statements by faculty or postgrad students for reference.
http://www.usask.ca/gmcte/resources/portfolio/samples
http://www.cs.tufts.edu/~ablumer/portfolio.html
http://ucat.osu.edu/professional-development/teaching-portfolio
Writing a teaching philosophy statement
These two pages give much detailed information about to put into a teaching portfolio
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/faculty/document-your-teaching/writing-a-teaching-philosophy-statement
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/faculty/document-your-teaching/recommended-teaching-portfolio-contents
Teaching Philosophy Exercises
At the bottom of this page is a link to Developing a Teaching Philosophy Statement which has exercises could be used at any stage of your career, and questions which are designed to help you reflect on your own teaching experiences and philosophy and communicating these to others.
http://opened.uoguelph.ca/student-resources/Teaching-Philosophy-Statements
Quotations about Teaching
Here are a few thought-provoking quotes from well-known historical figures about teaching.
http://www.quotationspage.com/subjects/teaching

Creating a Teaching Portfolio

Teaching Portfolio FAQs
http://www.usask.ca/gmcte/resources/portfolio/faq
Designing a Teaching Portfolio
A short article on planning your portfolio based on your intended audience as well as convincing documentation. It also includes advice on further reading on portfolios.
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/Designing_a_Teaching_Portfolio.pdf
Teaching Portfolio
A simple page for first-timers creating a Teaching Portfolio.
http://www.duq.edu/about/centers-and-institutes/center-for-teaching-excellence/academic-careers/landing-an-academic-job/teaching-portfolio
Teaching Portfolios
A concise page which gives general information on what a teaching portfolio is and how to write one. Special features are detailed lists of components and links to sample online portfolios.
http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/teaching-portfolios/
The Teaching Portfolio by Matthew Kaplan
This relatively short article discusses the nature and purpose of the teaching portfolio, suggests how they might be used effectively, and finishes with a detailed list of possible items for inclusion.
http://www.crlt.umich.edu/sites/default/files/resource_files/CRLT_no11.pdf
A Guide to the Teaching Portfolio
A comprehensive online guide by the University of New Hampshire to its purposes, role, content and structure. A special feature is the appendix on ‘Developing a philosophy of teaching statement.’
http://www.cs.tufts.edu/~ablumer/portfolio.html
Teaching Portfolio
This site covers in-depth what a teaching portfolio is and how to write it. It includes links to comprehensive pages on the different parts of a teaching portfolio, sample teaching philosophy statements, teaching portfolio FAQs, and links to resources which include the TPI (Teaching Perspectives Inventory) and samples of tables of contents of folios from various teachers.
http://www.usask.ca/gmcte/resources/portfolio
Teaching Portfolio
A practical and self-reflective guide for developing your own teaching portfolio. It is very comprehensive, with many examples from real-life portfolios, a section on documenting your teaching effectiveness, and special pages on guidance and examples of writing a philosophy of teaching statement.
http://ucat.osu.edu/professional-development/teaching-portfolio
The Teaching Dossier
From the University of Guelph, this page is very clearly organized, most in bullet-point form, with very thorough instruction of the whys, hows and whats of putting together a teaching portfolio. It includes appendices on ‘Tips and Strategies’ and ‘Teaching Philosophy Exercises’.
http://opened.uoguelph.ca/student-resources/Teaching-Dossiers
Portfolio Library
This is a collection of sites by the same author on ways of using portfolios for various purposes. The first link, to ‘Kimeldorf's Career Portfolio Sampler’ is a creative example of how to showcase your career skills through using a portfolio.
http://amby.com/kimeldorf/portfolio/
The Teaching Portfolio: a handbook for faculty, teaching assistants and teaching fellows
A downloadable booklet giving practical steps to writing a Teaching Portfolio. It also includes some sample TP outlines.
http://www.brown.edu/about/administration/sheridan-center/sites/brown.edu.about.administration.sheridan-center/files/uploads/TeachingPortfolio.pdf
Portfolios for Career Transition
This guide to writing a professional education career portfolio has some especially helpful tips in deciding which material to include in your portfolio, how to organize and how to present it in an interview situation.
https://kbarnstable.wordpress.com/2009/12/12/what-to-put-into-a-career-transition-portfolio/
https://kbarnstable.wordpress.com/2009/12/07/portfolios-for-career-transition/ - Part 1
https://kbarnstable.wordpress.com/2009/12/08/portfolios-for-career-transition-step-2/ - Part 2
https://kbarnstable.wordpress.com/2009/12/09/portfolios-for-career-transition-step-3/ - Part 3
https://kbarnstable.wordpress.com/2009/12/09/portfolios-for-career-transition-step-4-presentation/ - Part 4
Other Teaching portfolio resources
These pages contain links to other sites and/or lists of books/articles for further reading:
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/Designing_a_Teaching_Portfolio.pdf
http://ucat.osu.edu/professional-development/teaching-portfolio/readings
http://ucat.osu.edu/professional-development/teaching-portfolio/

Resources on ePortfolios

Elearnspace
This is a site on ePortfolios in general and how to put one together.
http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/eportfolios.htm
Sample online teaching portfolios
http://home.business.utah.edu/mgtdgw/teaching/prtfolio.htm
http://www.d.umn.edu/~lmillerc/TeachingEnglishHomePage/Portfolios/LMC-Sample.html
http://people.virginia.edu/~gbull/
A beginning teaching portfolio handbook: documenting and reflecting on your professional growth and abilities
This comprehensive volume is aimed at helping preservice teachers put together an effective portfolio. Each chapter is based around how to collect relevant 'artifacts' (evidence) of teaching and how to write meaningful reflective statements, according to 10 quality teaching principles as listed by INTASC (Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium). There are also chapters on reflective analysis and preparing a digital portfolio.
Foster, Bill R. Jr, Michael L. Walker & Kin Hyunsook Song (2007) A beginning teaching portfolio handbook: documenting and reflecting on your professional growth and abilities. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Merrill/Prentice Hall.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14993509
Creating your teaching portfolio: presenting your professional best.
As its title suggests, this book covers the questions of why we should use teaching portfolios, what we should put in them, how to go about putting them together and how they should look. Small but packed with information, it is written for school teachers but the principles would still apply to higher education. The book also includes examples of possible portfolio entries, some information on electronic portfolios and sections on the importance of reflection, how to present your philosophy of education and how to use standards (i.e. outcomes) to organise your portfolio.
Rieman, Patricia L. & Jeanne Okrasinski (2007) Creating your teaching portfolio: presenting your professional best.  Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Merrill/Prentice Hall.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15194449
Developing a teaching portfolio: a guide for preservice and practicing teachers.
This book is a guide for preservice and practicing teachers alike, explaining different types of portfolios, their uses and purposes, and how each type would be developed. The first part focuses on the creation of portfolios for students and new teachers, while the second part goes into many more of the specifics of writing portfolios for a variety of different situations. This revised third edition also includes case studies, following teachers through their careers, and also has many portfolio examples, both paper-based and digital.
Adams-Bullock, Ann & Parmalee P Hawk (2010) Developing a teaching portfolio: a guide for preservice and practicing teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson education. HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b17130943
Developing a professional teaching portfolio: a guide for success.
This book offers practical yet comprehensive guidelines for developing both the traditional paper-based and the electronic teaching portfolio.  It shows how to design your portfolio around a standards-based (i.e. outcomes-based) framework, how to document various aspects of your teaching practice, how to evaluate your portfolio and includes nearly 100 sample real-life portfolio entries.
Costantino, Patricia M. (2009) Developing a professional teaching portfolio: a guide for success. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Mrttill/Pearson.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b16529901
For HKALL records for earlier versions, click here.
The digital teaching portfolio handbook: a how-to guide for educators.
Describes digital teaching portfolios - their advantages and challenges when compared to conventional portfolios and the benefits to teacher training programs, teachers, schools and principals. There are several detailed chapters on the 'how to' of planning, designing, evaluating and publishing your digital teaching portfolio, advice on software use, hardware recommendations and principles of graphic design.
Kilbane, Clare R. & Natalie B. Milman (2003) The digital teaching portfolio handbook: a how-to guide for educators. Boston : Allyn and Bacon.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11122465

These may not mention OBE specifically, but deal with OBE-related assessment principles in general, e.g. Assessment for learning, formative assessment, assessment of learning outcomes, involvement of students in the assessment process, etc. On the whole these advance assessment for learning as opposed to assessment of learning.

General Resources

Internet Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment
This impressive page starts with a General Resources section which contains multiple links to various sites dealing with many aspects of assessment at higher education level.
http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/UPA/archives/assmt/resource.htm#course_assmt
Assessment 2020: Seven propositions for assessment reform in higher education
A 4-page document by expert David Boud summarizing key principles of assessment to guide anyone involved in assessment of student learning.
http://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/Assessment-2020_propositions_final.pdf
General Education Assessment within the Disciplines
Discusses 10 guidelines for effective assessment
Eder, Douglas. (2004) General Education Assessment within the Disciplines. In The Journal of General Education, Vol 53, No 2, 135-157 http://www.bmcc.cuny.edu/iresearch/upload/GenEdAssessmentWithinDisciplines.pdf
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b13090477 or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10005168
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b23128641    
Inside the Black Box: Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment
A study and appraisal of formative assessment giving evidence that it improves standards of learning.
Black, Paul and Dylan Wiliam (2001) Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. BERA, King’s College London School of Education.
http://weaeducation.typepad.co.uk/files/blackbox-1.pdf  
Doing Assessment as if Learning Matters Most
Argues for implementation of guidelines which will prioritize learning through assessment.
Angelo, Thomas A. (2003) Doing Assessment as if Learning Matters Most. From the AAHE Bulletin, May 1999
http://web2.uconn.edu/assessment/docs/resources/ARTICLES_and_REPORTS/Thomas_Angelo_Doing_Assessment_As_If_Learning_Matters_Most.pdf
Improving Student Engagement and Development through Assessment: Theory and Practice in Higher Education
Contains a variety of articles covering different aspects of assessment, including assessment for learning.
Clouder, Lynn, Christine Broughan, Steve Jewell & Graham Stevenson (Ed.) (2012) Improving Student Engagement and Development through Assessment: Theory and Practice in Higher Education. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York : Routledge
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18476612
Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment in College
An in-depth guide on the relationship between assessment and learning; covering both theory and practical steps, it aims to show how to make grading more conducive to learning.
Walvoord, Barbara E. & Virginia Johnson Anderson (2010). Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment in College. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b17386961
Assessing Student Competence in Accredited Disciplines: Pioneering Approaches to Assessment in Higher Education
Includes articles by different educators on assessment in various programs. Also includes an article by Catherine A. Palomba on ‘Implementing Effective Assessment’ and Douglas J. Eder on ‘Accredited Programs and Authentic Assessment’.
Palomba, Catherine A. & Trudy W. Banta (Eds) (2001) Assessing Student Competence in Accredited Disciplines: Pioneering Approaches to Assessment in Higher Education. Sterling, Va. : Stylus Pub.
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11156250
HKALL record for eBook:  http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14639419    
The ‘Mini-Viva’ as a Tool to Enhance Assessment for Learning
This paper reports on an action research project undertaken for the purpose of promoting assessment for learning within a summative assignment. The process of this assignment project included collegial and student feedback, student self-evaluation and a focus group interview, with the emphasis being on the effectiveness of a ‘mini-viva’ towards the end of the learning process.
Carless, David R. (2002) The ‘Mini-Viva’ as a Tool to Enhance Assessment for Learning. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 27, No. 4 For
HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .
Assessment in practice: putting principles to work on college campuses
A large volume on assessment for learning. The first ten chapters elaborate on ten principles for assessment. Then there are 82 case studies of different kinds of assessment with different objectives in many different majors. These cover assessing major subjects, General Education subjects, student development and progress, classroom assessment tasks, faculty development and institutional effectiveness.
Banta, Trudy W., John P. Lund, Karen E. Black & Frances W. Oblander (1996) Assessment in practice: putting principles to work on college campuses, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10398594 or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14885982
The art and science of classroom assessment : the missing part of pedagogy
A handy concise guidebook introduction to assessment at higher education level.
Brookhart, Susan M. (1999) The art and science of classroom assessment : the missing part of pedagogy. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 27(1). Washington, DC : Graduate School of Education and Human Development, The George Washington University.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10926967 For
HKALL records for online journal titles, click here  
Assessing academic programs in higher education
A comprehensive introduction to both planning and implementing assessment in higher education. It includes setting learning outcomes, principles of alignment and mapping, different kinds of direct and indirect assessment techniques and scoring rubrics.
Allen, Mary J. (2004) Assessing academic programs in higher education. Bolton, Mass. : Anker Pub.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10090442
Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education
This is a volume of 12 articles by key academics on various advanced aspects of assessment for learning. These include the need to develop students’ capacity to judge their own work; how to design assessment that will deter plagiarism; new modes of authentic assessment and how to measure these; conditions under which students learn and therefore are assessed most effectively; how pre-university assessment experiences affect students in higher education; maintaining a “sustainable learning culture”; and conceptions and analyses of needed system level changes.
Joughin, G.  (Ed.) 2009. Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education, Dordrecht ; London : Springer
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record:  http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b16912386
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18802040
Assessment : case studies, experience and practice from higher education
A book with 21 case studies of assessment in higher education, organized into 6 sections: Information Technology, Reflective Assessment, Institution-Wide Assessment Programs, Assessment Methods for Special Purposes, Addressing the needs of Individual Students, and Hands-on Assessment. Each chapter gives a real-life case scenario presenting some kind of problem or issue, then goes on to report how it was resolved.
Schwartz, Peter & Graham Webb (Eds) (2002) Assessment : case studies, experience and practice from higher education, London : Kogan Page
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10648126
Advances and innovations in university assessment and feedback
12 articles by well-known experts in assessment, divided into four sections: Changing perspectives on the nature and purposes of assessment; Students’ perceptions of assessment and feedback; Reconceptualizing important facets of assessment; Innovation in assessment practices.
Kreber, C., Anderson, C., Entwistle, N., & J. McArthur (Eds.). (2014) Advances and innovations in university assessment and feedback. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22212702
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22214302
Assessing for learning : building a sustainable commitment across the institution
A substantial volume which recognizes that there is no one formula for assessment, it takes the reader through the various stages and issues that need to be considered when institutions are developing ongoing assessment practices. It has been described as a virtual seminal work in the field of assessment in higher education.
Maki, Peggy (2010) Assessing for learning : building a sustainable commitment across the institution. Sterling, Va. : Stylus Pub. (Also available as an ebook)
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18157510
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19852428 For
HKALL record for the 2004 version, click here .
Knowing what Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment
A large volume reporting in detail on exploration into issues in educational assessment. It is divided into 4 sections: Overview and Background; The Scientific Foundations of Assessment; Assessment Design and Use – Principles, Practices and Future Directions; and Conclusion [Implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice].
Pellegrino, James, Naomi Chudowsky & Robert Glaser (Eds) (2001) Knowing what Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11860855
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12124208
A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment
Writing ahead of his time, Wiggins argues for a redefinition of what a true test is: It should be an authentic assessment requiring the performance of exemplary tasks, with criteria shared in adance – ‘replicates the authentic intellectual challenges facing a person in the field’ (p 706). Such tests should be responsive to individual students and unique school contexts, complex, multiple and varied, central experiences in learning, so that students’ progress over time can be gauged, assessing the important area of “habits of mind” rather than simple short-term recall. In contrast with generic standardized tests, there should be the possibility for dialogue between the assessor and the assessed after the performance. Grading on the curve is not justifiable as it tells nothing about the students’ actual achievements. Wiggins finishes with a list of ‘criteria of authenticity’.
Wiggins, Grant (1989) A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment. In Phi Delta Kappa International, 70(9), May, 1989
https://grantwiggins.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/wiggins-atruetest-kappan89.pdf

Criterion referenced assessment (vs norm referencing)

Guide to OBE: Rubrics (PolyU)
A very short but clear introduction to the rationale behind using rubrics, explaining criterion-referencing versus norm-referencing. http://www.polyu.edu.hk/obe/08_3_3.php
Interpretations of criteria-based assessment and grading in higher education
Discusses dilemmas that come up in assessment in higher education contexts where criterion-referencing is claimed to be used.
Sadler, D. Royce. Interpretations of criteria-based assessment and grading in higher education. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30 (3), April 2005, 175-194.
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .
Guidelines for implementation of Criterion-Referenced Assessment (PolyU)
Hong Kong Polytechnic University official guide to assessment under OBE. It compares criterion-referencing with norm-referencing, explains why criterion-referencing should be preferred, and discusses steps to its implementation.
http://www.polyu.edu.hk/obe/GuideOBE/GuidelinesforImplementationOnCriterion_eferencedAssessment.pdf
Driving learning via criterion-referenced assessment using Bloom’s Taxonomy
Discusses the value of using Bloom’s Taxonomy in a criterion-referencing assessment system. It describes an unique assessment system in practice, which is based on Bloom’s Taxonomy and allows students to go as high up the Taxonomy as they wish and attain whatever grade they are seeking. Students content with a minimal passing grade need only complete a few assessment items; those choosing to go higher need to accordingly successfully compete more tasks.
Lister, Raymond. Driving learning via criterion-referenced assessment using Bloom’s Taxonomy. UniServe Science Assessment Symposium Proceedings, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, pp 80-85 http://science.uniserve.edu.au/pubs/procs/2006/lister.pdf
What are we assessing for? Does conventional assessment undermine learning outcomes?
This talk by David Boud, given at the 2015 Assessment conference at Hong Kong University, covers what standards are, where they have come from, what assessment is, and many implications for criterion-referencing in practice. He also distinguishes between formative, summative and sustainable assessment and argues for a more forward-thinking way of educating students so that they become adept at making judgements about their own learning.
http://www.cetl.hku.hk/conf2015/what-are-we-assessing-for-does-conventional-assessment-undermine-learning-outcomes/

Sustainable Assessment & Sustainable Feedback

Sustainable assessment: rethinking assessment for the learning society
Boud argues that assessment should go beyond traditional summative and formative assessment to the idea of sustainable assessment, which equips students with the skills for judging their own work throughout life in both formal and informal settings.
Boud, D. (2000) Sustainable assessment: rethinking assessment for the learning society. In Studies in Continuing Education , 22(2), 151-167.
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here
Aligning Assesment with Long-term Learning
This paper argues that students need to become assessors for life and work, so assessment should become more learning-oriented.
Boud, D. and Falchikov, N. (2006) Aligning assessment with long-term learning, In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 31(4), 399-413
http://pages.ramapo.edu/~vasishth/Learning_Outcomes/Boud+Assessment+Long-term_Learning.pdf
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .
Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the Longer Term
A series of articles focused on how to integrate teaching, learning and assessment to better prepare students for lifelong learning.
Boud, David & Nancy Falchikov (Ed.) (2007) Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the Longer Term. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York : Routledge.
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15439106
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18163506
Assessment Futures (Sustainable Assessment)
This site, put together by David Boud, does not focus just on the traditional divides of formative or summative assessment, but instead gives general ideas and strategies on what Boud elsewhere calls ‘Sustainable Assessment’ -  equipping students for the learning and assessing they will need to do  after  completing their course and the challenges they will face after graduation. The Conceptual Framework page is especially rich in theory, with extracts of two journal articles by Boud.
http://www.uts.edu.au/research-and-teaching/teaching-and-learning/assessment-futures/conceptual-framework
Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education
This is a volume of 12 articles by key academics on various advanced aspects of assessment for learning.  Many of them discuss issues relevant to the concept of ‘sustainable assessment’  However, i n particular, three chapters develop the idea that students should be included in assessment in such a way that they develop the capacity to evaluate their own work:  
Boud, D. (2009) How can practice reshape assessment? Chapter 3 in G. Joughin (Ed)  Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education , 29-44, Dordrecht ; London : Springer  
Sadler, D. Royce (2009) Transforming Holistic Assessment and Grading into a Vehicle for Complex Learning. Chapter 4 in G. Joughin (Edl) Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education , 45-64, Dordrecht ; London : Springer  
Yorke, Mantz (2009) Faulty Signals? Inadequacies of Grading Systems and a Possible Response, Chapter 5 in G. Joughin (Edl) Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education , 65-84, Dordrecht ; London : Springer
 
Joughin, G.  (Edl) 2009. Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education, Dordrecht ; London : Springer
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b16912386
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18802040
Opening up feedback: Teaching Learners to See
A short article discussing how teachers can help students develop the ability to make holistic judgments on more complex assessment tasks. Sadler also describes his own attempt at helping students do this through tutorial sessions where students had to evaluate others’ (anonymous) work without use of rubrics, and justify their evaluations, giving each other feedback.
Sadler, D. R. (2013) 'Opening up feedback: Teaching learners to see'. In Merry, S., Price, M., Carless, D., & Taras, M. (Eds.) Reconceptualising Feedback in Higher Education: developing dialogue with students . (Ch. 5, 54-63). London: Routledge.
Click here to download
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22943070
Backwards Assessment Explanations: Implications for Teaching and Assessment Practice
In this article, Sadler argues against the usual practice of providing explicit criteria to students before assignments. Instead, a ‘backwards’ way of assessment is recommended, where holistic judgment is used and then explained to students, drawing from a large and diverse set of criteria. This better prepares students for monitoring the quality of their own work.
Sadler, D. R. (2015) ' Backwards Assessment Explanations: Implications for Teaching and Assessment Practice '. In Merry Lehler D. et al (Eds), (2015) Assessment in Music Education: from Policy to Practice, Switzerland, Springer.
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22895861
Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education
This whole volume of 14 related articles focuses on rethinking assessment for learning for longer term purposes. It is divided into 4 sections: Setting the scene; The Context of Assessment; Themes; and The Practice of Assessment. Four articles in particular focus on sustainable assessment:
Boud, D. and Falchikov, N. (2007) Introduction: Assessment for the longer term, in D. Boud & N. Falchikov (eds)   Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the Longer Term . London: Routledge, pp. 1-13.
Boud, D. (2007) Reframing assessment as if learning were important, in D. Boud & N. Falchikov (eds)   Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the Longer Term . London: Routledge, pp. 14-25.
Kirkwood, Margarent (2007) The contribution of sustainable assessment to teachers’ continuing professional development, in D. Boud and N. Falchikov (eds) Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the Longer Term.  London: Routledge, pp. 167-180.
Boud, D. and Falchikov, N. (2007) Developing assessment for informing judgement, in D. Boud and N. Falchikov (eds) Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the Longer Term.  London: Routledge, pp. 181-197.
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15439106
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18163506
What are we assessing for? Does conventional assessment undermine learning outcomes?
This talk, given at the 2015 Assessment conference at Hong Kong University, covers what standards are, where they have come from, what assessment is, and many implications for assessment in practice. He also distinguishes between formative, summative and sustainable assessment and argues for a more forward-thinking way of educating students so that they become adept at making judgements about their own learning.
http://www.cetl.hku.hk/conf2015/what-are-we-assessing-for-does-conventional-assessment-undermine-learning-outcomes/  
Sustainable feedback and the development of student self-evaluative capabilities
The concept of sustainable feedback comes from the idea of sustainable assessment (Boud, 2000). In this chapter, using a case study of an award-winning teacher, Carless argues that dialogic feedback embedded into the curriculum in various forms is sustainable in that it helps to reduce the students’ dependence on teachers and enhances their self-evaluative capabilities.
Carless, David. (2013) Sustainable feedback and the development of student self-evaluative capabilities. In Merry, Stephen, Margaret Price, David Carless & Maddelena Taras (Eds.) (2013) Reconceptualising Feedback in Higher Education: developing dialogue with students. London: Routledge, pp 113-122.
Click here to download the table of content.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22943070
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394

Feedback as part of the Assessment-for-Learning process

See the ‘Feedback’ section under ‘Good Classroom Practice’ in the ‘Best Practice’ section for more practical ideas.

Reconceptualising Feedback in Higher Education: developing dialogue with students
This book has 16 chapters by different authors on many different aspects of feedback-for-learning as part of the instructional and assessment process. Part 1 covers current issues, context and feedback practices; Part 2 discusses how students can be encouraged to be more engaged in feedback practices, while Part 3 considers how to foster institutional change in feedback practice. Throughout the book, feedback is seen variously as: sustainable, opportunity to learn, continual and coherent, interactive and dialogical, anonymous marking, developmental, self-assessment and integrative learning, critique and ethical.
Merry, Stephen, Margaret Price, David Carless & Maddelena Taras (Eds.) (2013) Reconceptualising Feedback in Higher Education: developing dialogue with students. London: Routledge.
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22943070
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394
Feedback: How learning occurs
This is a very easy-to-read chapter in a book on assessment. It explains the central place that quality and regular feedback has in the learning process.
Wiggins, Grant (1997) How Learning Occurs, in Chaffee E. E. et al. (1997) Assessing impact : evidence and action , Washington, DC : American Association for Higher Education, pp 31-39
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b25462696
Closing the Feedback Loop in Classroom-Based Assessment
A short article discussing how to close the feedback loop at three levels (classroom, program, institutional) using a case example of critical thinking.
Walvoord, Barbara E., Barbara Bardes & Janice Denton (1998) Closing the Feedback Loop in Classroom-Based Assessment. In Assessment Update 10(5), pp 1-2, 10-11, Sep-Oct 1998.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10178771
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10178771  or  http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10392035
Integrating feedback with classroom teaching: Using exemplars to scaffold learning
In this chapter, Hendry argues that feedback should be first be given before the assignment is due, in the form of exemplars, followed by targeted personalized after-task feedback.
Hendry, Graham. (2013) Integrating feedback with classroom teaching: Using exemplars to scaffold learning. In Merry, Stephen, Margaret Price, David Carless & Maddelena Taras (Eds.) (2013) Reconceptualising Feedback in Higher Education: developing dialogue with students. London: Routledge, pp 113-122.
Click here to download the table of content
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22943070
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394
Beyond feedback: developing student capability in complex appraisal
In this article, Sadler argues that in order for students to understand and make good use of post-assessment feedback given to them, they need foundational knowledge in three areas: task compliance, quality and criteria. His solution involves providing learners with similar appraisal experience to teachers as a strategic part of the course design, in the form of regular peer assessment and systematic exposure to exemplars.
Sadler, D. Royce. (2010) Beyond feedback: developing student capability in complex appraisal. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 35 (5), 535-550
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .
Using Feedback to Help Students Learn
This document by Phil Race is from the Higher Education Academy. It discusses why feedback is so important, and lists the advantages and disadvantages of a multiplicity of different ways of giving feedback at various stages, whether in writing, face-to-face, in print, or electronically.
http://wap.rdg.ac.uk/web/FILES/EngageinFeedback/Race_using_feedback_to_help_students_learn.pdf
Enhancing student learning through effective formative feedback
This report on a project by the Higher Education Academy provides a theoretical model for formative feedback, elaborates on 7 principles for effective feedback, and details 8 case studies where different types of feedback was used. It also gives outlines for two possible interactive workshops on feedback for teachers to use and adapt. https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/sites/default/files/resources/id353_senlef_guide.pdf

Collaborative reflective analysis of student work

Reflective Analysis of Student Work
This book combines the concepts of collaboration within Faculty Learning Communities and teachers’ reflective practice with analysis of assessment of student work as part of an ongoing program of improving teaching and learning in the classroom. It describes this as bringing ‘a different approach to professional development’ which is called the ‘Collaborative Professional Development Process’. It covers both theory and practice, with many examples, tables and sample forms given.
Bella, Norene J.(2004) Reflective Analysis of Student Work. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Corwin Press
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10317131

Problem-based Learning – inquiries into specific types of assessment

Integrating assessment tasks in a problem-based learning environment
An article reporting on research into whether students who completed extra assessment tasks in a PBL course performed better in the final exam.
Gijbels, D., van de Watering, G., & Dochy, F. (2005) Integrating assessment tasks in a problem-based learning environment. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30 (1), 73-86. (1). 73-86.
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .

Involving students in Assessment for Learning

Towards an Assessment Partnership Model? Students’ Experiences of Being Engaged as Partners in Assessment for Learning (AfL) Enhancement Activity
This interesting chapter discusses the experiences of undergraduate students at Northumbria University taking an optional course on AfL where they first learned about how various forms of assessment impacted on student learning, then worked together with staff and students to produce resources for other students to use. It provides both staff and student perspectives, and explains how the concept of AfL came out of the shift to a more student-centred paradigm.
Sambell, Kay & Linda Graham (2011) Towards an Assessment Partnership Model? Students’ Experiences of Being Engaged as Partners in Assessment for Learning (AfL) Enhancement Activity. In Little, S. (Ed.) 2011. Staff-student partnerships in higher education . London: Continuum, 31-47.
Click here to download the table of content.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18309931
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19500586
Involving Students in the Scholarship of Assessment: Student Voices on the Feedback Agenda for Change
Similar to the Sambell and Graham (2011) chapter, this book chapter discusses the experiences of undergraduate students at Northumbria University taking an optional course on AfL where they first learned about how various forms of assessment impacted on student learning, then worked together with staff and students to produce resources for other students to use. This article analyses the guides produced and highlights the differences between the ways that the students framed the AfL agenda when compared with texts written by teachers.
Sambell, Kay (2013) Involving Students in the Scholarship of Assessment: Student Voices on the Feedback Agenda for Change. In Merry, S., Price, M., Carless, D., & Taras, M. (Eds.) Reconceptualising Feedback in Higher Education: developing dialogue with students. London: Routledge, pp 80-91.
Click here to download the table of content.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b22943070
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21214394

Peer Assessment

Beyond feedback: developing student capability in complex appraisal
In this article, Sadler argues that in order for students to understand and make good use of post-assessment feedback given to them, they need foundational knowledge in three areas: task compliance, quality and criteria. His solution involves providing learners with similar appraisal experience to teachers as a strategic part of the course design, in the form of regular peer assessment and systematic exposure to exemplars. He recommends peer assessment driven by a four-question agenda to progressively develop their ability to make evaluative judgements.
Sadler, D. Royce. (2010) Beyond feedback: developing student capability in complex appraisal. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 35 (5), 535-550
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .

Authentic Assessment

A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment
Writing ahead of his time, Wiggins argues for a redefinition of what a true test is: It should be an authentic assessment requiring the performance of exemplary tasks, with criteria shared in adance – ‘replicates the authentic intellectual challenges facing a person in the field’ (p 706). Such tests should be responsive to individual students and unique school contexts, complex, multiple and varied, central experiences in learning, so that students’ progress over time can be gauged, assessing the important area of “habits of mind” rather than simple short-term recall. In contrast with generic standardized tests, there should be the possibility for dialogue between the assessor and the assessed after the performance. Grading on the curve is not justifiable as it tells nothing about the students’ actual achievements. Wiggins finishes with a list of ‘criteria of authenticity’.
Wiggins, Grant (1989) A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment. In Phi Delta Kappa International, 70(9), May, 1989
https://grantwiggins.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/wiggins-atruetest-kappan89.pdf
Assessing Student Competence in Accredited Disciplines: Pioneering Approaches to Assessment in Higher Education
Includes articles by different educators on assessment in various programs. Also includes an article by Catherine A. Palomba on ‘Implementing Effective Assessment’ and Douglas J. Eder on ‘Accredited Programs and Authentic Assessment’.
Palomba, Catherine A. & Trudy W. Banta (Eds) (2001) Assessing Student Competence in Accredited Disciplines: Pioneering Approaches to Assessment in Higher Education. Sterling, Va. : Stylus Pub.
Click here to download the table of content.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11156250
HKALL record for eBook:  http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14639419    
Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education
This is a volume of 12 articles by key academics on various advanced aspects of assessment for learning. These include the need to develop students’ capacity to judge their own work; how to design assessment that will deter plagiarism; new modes of authentic assessment and how to measure these; conditions under which students learn and therefore are assessed most effectively; how pre-university assessment experiences affect students in higher education; maintaining a “sustainable learning culture”; and conceptions and analyses of needed system level changes.
Joughin, G.  (Ed.) 2009. Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education, Dordrecht ; London : Springer
Click here to download the table of content.
HKALL record:  http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b16912386
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18802040
Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning
This book explains the principles and purposes behind learner-centred assessment. It also has practical and informative chapters on setting outcomes and aligning courses, different classroom assessment techniques, different kinds of authentic assessments (ill-defined problems, chapter 7), creating and using rubrics, assessing critical thinking and problem-solving skills and using portfolios.
Huba, Mary E, Jann E. Freed (2000) Learner-centered assessment on college campuses : shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston : Allyn and Bacon
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10553500

For more practical resources on rubrics, go to the Rubrics section under ‘Best Practice’

Research into Rubrics

Improving students’ learning by developing their understanding of assessment criteria and processes
The research reported in this paper within the larger context of criterion-referenced assessment tools and processes confirms that criteria in a rubric (termed ‘a grid’) are not always explicitly understood by students. A structured intervention was tested which was found to significantly improve student understanding and learning in a way which may be transferrable. ‘The intervention supported the transfer of tacit knowledge through the use of examplars, marking practice and the opportunity for dialogue between staff and students to compliment explicit knowledge provided through the verbal explanation of assessment criteria by staff and in written format embodied within the grid.’ (p 161) The socializiation process, where students were actively engaged in the marking process, was seen as the most significant factor in the experimental group, which showed significant improvement over a control group.  


Rust, C, Price, M and O’Donovan, B (2003) Improving students’ learning by developing their understanding of assessment criteria and processes. In Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education , 28 (2), 147-164

Critiques of Rubrics

When criteria should not be used
Many of Sadler’s articles make a case for restricting the use of criteria. They are useful to a point, but should not be relied upon all the time, as they may hinder students from developing the capacity to judge their own work, which is a necessary skill for the workforce. Some such articles are:  
Sadler, D. Royce. (2010) Beyond feedback: developing student capability in complex appraisal. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 35 (5), 535-550
Sadler, D. Royce. Interpretations of criteria-based assessment and grading in higher education. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 30 (3), April 2005, 175-194
Sadler, D. Royce (2009) Transforming Holistic Assessment and Grading into a Vehicle for Complex Learning. Chapter 4 in G. Joughin (Edl) Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education , 45-64, Dordrecht ; London : Springer
Sadler, D. R. (2015) ' Backwards Assessment Explanations: Implications for Teaching and Assessment Practice '. In Merry Lehler D. et al (Eds), (2015) Assessment in Music Education: from Policy to Practice, Switzerland, Springer.
Sadler, D. R. (2013) 'Opening up feedback: Teaching learners to see'. In Merry, S., Price, M., Carless, D., & Taras, M. (Eds.) Reconceptualising Feedback in Higher Education: developing dialogue with students . (Ch. 5, 54-63). London: Routledge.  
Rubric Nation
This book is largely a negative critique of the use of rubrics in the current American context, where rubrics have now come to symbolize compliance within high-stakes accountability systems, reflecting the larger debate generally about mandated standards-based education in the United States. In some areas, standardized rubrics are imposed on schools and teachers as well as being used to evaluate teacher trainers. The conclusion is that rubrics are tools that should never be judged as simply good or bad, but should always be considered within the context of their use and the motives behind those using them.
Tenam-Zemach, Michelle & Joseph E. Flynn (Eds) (2015) Rubric Nation: Critical Inquiries on the Impact of Rubrics in Education. Charlotte, NC : Information Age Publishing, Inc.
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b23082008
Learning theories, developmental stages and rubrics
This book includes chapters on how to effectively write and use rubrics for all levels of learners. What is unique is that it has some unique sections on how rubrics fit with various learning theories (ch 1) and developmental stages (ch 3-8).
Quinlan, Audrey M. (2012) A complete guide to rubrics : assessment made easy for teachers of K-college. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Education.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19460493
Student Learning Outcomes Assessment within the Texas State University MPA Program
A research report dealing with the extent to which program outcomes were being met for a specific program.
Castleberry, Thomas. (2006). “Student Learning Outcomes Assessment within the Texas State University MPA Program.” Applied Research Project. Texas State University https://digital.library.txstate.edu/handle/10877/3644
Internet Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment
This impressive page consists of an extensive collection of resources relating to the design of outcomes-based assessment, mostly at institutional and program levels.
http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/UPA/archives/assmt/resource.htm#course_assmt
Adaptation of outcome-based learning in an undergraduate English education programme
A Research in Higher Education Journal article by Wang Lixun of the Hong Kong Institute of Education, dealing mainly with Developing Program and Course ILOs.  
Wang, L. (2011). Adaptation of outcome-based learning in an undergraduate English education programme. In Research in Higher Education Journal, 12. http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/11850.pdf
HKALL record for eJournal: click here  
Identifying generic skills through curriculum mapping: a critical evaluation
Abstract: This article describes processes involved in a curriculum mapping exercise that constituted the first phase of a project aimed at furthering the integration of generic skills in a Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood) program. The purpose of the mapping exercise was to identify the generic skills currently fostered in the program, and those that appear to  be  overlooked. The article draws attention to the complexity of issues associated with curriculum mapping and highlights the need to refine the somewhat simplistic curriculum mapping techniques advocated in much of the existing literature. The centrality of collegial dialogue to curriculum mapping if it is to lead to curriculum change is also emphasized.
Sumison, J., & Goodfellow, J.   (2004). Identifying generic skills through curriculum mapping: a critical evaluation.  In Higher Education Research & Development, 23 (3), 329-346.  
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here
Mapping generic skills curricula: A Recommended Methodology
Abstract: … This   paper   presents   and   discusses   the  results   of  a  study   mapping    the  outcomes, delivery,  learning   and  assessment  of an  embedded  generic  skills  curriculum  and  benchmarking these   against   externally  agreed   standards.   By  collecting  data   from   students,    supervisors  and curriculum  documentation  across  the  whole  five year  course  in a UK  medical  school  it evaluates the  success  of the  generic  skills programme  in achieving its objectives. It goes on to discuss  how data from  the maps  might  also be used to encourage student  learning.  It recommends  the adoption of this  methodology to map  embedded  skills curricula   with  the  aim  of highlighting skills delivery for  curriculum  designers and  skills development  for students.
Robley, W., Whittle, S., & Murdoch-Eaton, D . (2005). Mapping generic skills curricula: a recommended methodology. In Journal of Further and Higher Education, 29 (3), 221-231.
For HKALL records and original journal & online titles, click here
Mapping generic skills curricula: outcomes and discussion
Abstract:  … In 1993  the  General   Medical   Council  introduced student    selected   components   (SSCs)   into  the  UK   medical   curriculum  with  the   intention  of 'embedding'   generic   skills  into  undergraduate   medical   study.   The   SSC  programme  at  Leeds School  of Medicine was  designed to  develop  specific  generic  skills in early  focused  projects   and then  allow students  to practise  these  skills in clinical  settings  in later  projects. In order to evaluate this programme,  a methodology was devised  to map  the  generic  skills curriculum to an externally derived   consensus  on   SSC   outcomes.  English's  model,   mapping   'declared',   'delivered'  and 'learned'   curricula, was used  and  a fourth,   'assessed' map  added  to check  the  'alignment'  of the curriculum    through     all   its   stages.    Data    for   the   maps    were    gathered   from    curriculum documentation,   project    supervisors  and   students    using   document   scrutiny,   questionnaires, interviews and  focus  groups.   The methodology was  run  over  a complete academic year  for the entire  programme.  It proved valuable for mapping  any  'embedded'  generic  skills programme to evaluate  its success  by collecting data  from  all stakeholders.
Robley, W., Whittle, S., & Murdoch-Eaton, D . (2005). Mapping generic skills curricula: outcomes and discussion.  In Journal of Further and Higher Education, 29 (4), 321-330.
For HKALL records and original journal & online titles, click here

Research into Graduate Attributes

Generic Graduate Attributes
These pages report on a University of Sydney project trying to find a conceptual basis for classifying graduate attributes. There is a link to ‘Publications on the Project’ which has several research articles on this topic.
http://www.itl.usyd.edu.au/graduateAttributes/about.htm
Integrating the Development of Graduate Attributes Through Constructive Alignment
Treleaven, L. & Voola, R. (2008) Integrating the Development of Graduate Attributes Through Constructive Alignment. In Journal of Marketing Education, 30(2); 160-173
http://jmd.sagepub.com/content/30/2/160.full.pdf+html
HKALL record for journal and eJournal: click here
Developing students' transferable skills Deals with generic skills
required by graduates, and discusses how and to what extent these should be developed in different majors. It also covers how to integrate them into courses and assess them.
Gibbs, Graham, Chris Rust, Alan Jenkins & David Jaques (1994) Developing students' transferable skills. Oxford, U.K. : Oxford Centre for Staff Development.
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12314302

HK Universities’ ideal graduate attributes/outcomes

Designing and improving courses and curricula in higher education : a systematic approach
A practical, systematic guide, from an OBA perspective, to enhancing, evaluating and implementing higher education programs.
Diamond, Robert M.  (1989) Designing and improving courses and curricula in higher education : a systematic approach. San Francisco, Calif. : Jossey-Bass.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10300818
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b13352657
Designing courses for higher education
Written from an OBA perspective, this book is especially rich in scholarly references. It provides a theoretical framework from which relevant decisions can be made but also has a practical focus.
Toohey, Susan (1999) Designing courses for higher education. Buckingham ; Philadelphia, Penn. : Society for Research into Higher Education : Open University Press
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10258767
Understanding by Design
This book presents a ‘UbD’ (Understanding by Design) framework for educators, which is essentially OBE in different terminology. It explains in detail with many practical examples the principles and steps behind every aspect of implementing constructively aligned curricula and assessments.
Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe (2005) Understanding by Design. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Education, Inc.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12482550
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14656612
HKALL record for 2001 version: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10070905 or 2001 eBook:  http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10715038
HKALL record for 1998 version: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11004548
Design-focused evaluation
This article deals with SET (Student Evaluation of Teaching). It goes in-depth into the theory behind how to write questions effectively in an outcomes-based system for teacher/course evaluation by students. It lists three types of evaluation question; Methods-focussed, Learning outcomes focussed, and Design-focussed. The 'design-focussed' terminology is similar to Biggs' Constructive Alignment, or OBATL. Smith recommends the latter of the three, where questions have a double-focus, being concerned specifically with students' perceptions about the effectiveness of the TLAs in facilitating achievement of the Learning Outcomes.
Smith, Calvin (2008). Design-Focused Evaluation. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 33(6), 631-645.
For HKALL records for the original journal & online journal titles, click here .
The Learning Experience Inventory
This article reports on a 12-item instrument used to measure the clarity of students’ perspectives of their teaching/learning environment (i.e. the ‘learning’ part of the regular ‘teaching and learning’ evaluation. The 12 questions are split into three sections, based on the idea of Constructive Alignment: Clarity of learning (clarity of what to learn); Effective Teaching and Learning Activities (clarity of how to learn); and Effective Assessment of Learning (clarity of how learning may be assessed). Reliability and validity were confirmed in a large-scale test in a local university. As the abstract states, it has been found to be ‘a quickly administered instrument that can be used to assess the quality of ongoing teaching, and to pinpoint aspects of teaching that can be enhanced,’ and it is now currently in regular use at HKBU.
Wong, Eva, Theresa Kwong & Dimple R. Thadani (2014). The Effects of Students’ Perceptions of their Learning Experience on their Approaches to Learning: The Learning Experience Inventory in Courses (LEI-C). Education Journal 3(6), 369-376.
Open-access journal article available online at:
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=196&doi=10.11648/j.edu.20140306.18  
Self-Assessment and Content-Specific Course Evaluations – Standards-Aligned Skills Assessment
Selke notes that the traditional end-of-course SET forms mainly focus on teacher inputs rather than on outputs in the form of student achievement, which are a more accurate gauge of a teacher’s effectiveness. She suggests gaining the latter through student self-evaluation of how far they have progressed in knowledge or skills taught in the course, both mid- and end-semester. She shows an example with analysis of a self-designed Standards-Aligned Skills Assessment from one of her taught courses.
Selke, Mary J. Goggins (2013) Rubric assessment goes to college : objective, comprehensive evaluation of student work. Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield Education, pp 41-45
Click here to download the file
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21068315
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21616743 (CUHK)
Questionnaire Construction for Student Evaluation
This is a one-page document giving advice on how to word open-ended questions to get the best quality and focused feedback possible from students.
http://tag.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Questionnaire-Construction-for-Student-Evaluation.pdf
Sharing responsibility for learning through formative evaluation: Moving to evaluation as learning
Bovill, C. 2011. Sharing responsibility for learning through formative evaluation: Moving to evaluation as learning. Practice and Evidence of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education , 6, 2, 96 – 109.
http://www.pestlhe.org.uk/index.php/pestlhe/article/view/112/222

ABSTRACT: … Many undergraduate and postgraduate programmes aim to develop students’ skills in critical analysis and autonomous learning, with some courses specifically requiring participants to engage in critical reflection on their practice. Yet it is relatively uncommon for evaluation of courses to include any requirement for students to evaluate their own role in the learning experience. An example is presented of a simple, small-scale formative evaluation exercise where course participants were encouraged to give feedback on a course, their learning experiences and on the teaching approach used. However, this evaluation also required participants to reflect on the role they played in their own and others’ learning. It is argued that the approach described in this paper that encourages student self-reflection on learning as an integral part of evaluation processes, is a form of evaluation as learning. This is an approach that could be adapted for use in a wide range of courses for the purpose of encouraging students to reflect more deeply on their role in their own and others’ learning.

Evaluation of online teaching

The Seven Principles of Good Practice: A framework for evaluating on-line teaching
This research article relates to evaluation of an Internet-based Master’s level educational statistics course which was designed on constructivist principles. A questionnaire was devised, based on the Seven Principles of Good Practice (by Chickering & Gamson). The results confirmed the effectiveness and use of the seven principles, and identified three areas for improvement: the use of more open-ended discussion questions, more monitoring of study groups to ensure equal participation and the possibility of occasional face-to-face meetings.
Bangert, Arthur W. (2004) The Seven Principles of Good Practice: A framework for evaluating on-line teaching. In The Internet and Higher Education 7, 217 – 232.

According to Driscoll and Wood (2007), “The scholarship of teaching and learning has been defined as a process of inquiry and reflection into teaching in order to achieve new understandings, to raise new questions, and to ultimately improve teaching and learning … Most recently, Huber and Hutchings (2005) gave the definition of scholarship of teaching and learning useful form when they stated, ‘The scholarship of teaching and learning includes the kinds of inquiry and investigation that faculty are most likely to undertake when they examine and document teaching and learning in their classrooms in order to improve their practice and make it available to peers’ (p. 4)”
Quote from: Driscoll, Amy & Swarup Wood (2007) Developing outcomes-based assessment for learner-centered education : a faculty introduction. Sterling, Va.: Stylus Pub, pp 220-221

SoTL in general

What’s the Evidence
An excellent short article on what the Scholarship of Teaching is all about and why teachers need to engage in it. In short, teachers need to make their teaching more visible and look at classroom problems positively as a means of ongoing investigation.
http://tag.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/whatsevidence.pdf
Parallels between Research and Teaching Scholarship
A quick but enlightening one-page chart of parallels between the Scholarship of Teaching and scholarly research.
http://www.tag.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Parallels-Between-Research-and-Teaching.pdf
Building a Scholarship of Assessment
Banta, Trudy (Ed) (2002) Building a Scholarship of Assessment. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10043538
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b13418907
HKALL record for eBook (HKU): http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11028886
Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate
Boyer, Ernest L. (2016) Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass
HKALL record for eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b23644063
HKALL record for original 1990 version: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10180408
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b13627056 (PolyU)
Teaching as Community Property: Putting an end to Pedagogical Solitude
Schulman, a well-known scholar in the field of SoTL, argues for a change in the status of teaching from private to community property.
Schulman, L. S. (1993) Teaching as Community Property: Putting an end to Pedagogical Solitude. In Change 25(6), 6-7.

SoTL and Student-Faculty Partnerships

The scholarship of teaching and learning reconsidered: institutional integration and impact
This book takes a new look at the effectiveness and importance of the scholarship of teaching and learning, which includes the idea of student voice being incorporated into such research.
Hutchings, P., Huber, M. T., and Ciccone, A. 2011. The scholarship of teaching and learning reconsidered: institutional integration and impact.
Jossey-Bass/Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lingnan Library record: http://library.ln.edu.hk/record=b2578248
HKALL record for Book & eBook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b18564304 or  http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19870327
Foundations of student-faculty partnerships in the scholarship of teaching and learning
The 11 chapters in this book report in detail on a series of case studies from different parts of the US which used student-faculty partnerships in various ways. This opening chapter is a thought-provoking introduction to the theoretical and developmental considerations of student-faculty partnerships. It includes an essay by a student on the prompting and process of moving into co-partnership with his teacher, along with a commentary by his teacher.
Manor, C., Bloch-Schulman, S., Flannery, K., and Felten, P. 2010. Foundations of student-faculty partnerships in the scholarship of teaching and learning. In C. Werder & M.M Otis (Eds.), Engaging student voices in the study of teaching and learning (pp. 3 – 15). Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b17494120
Power and Expertise: Student-faculty collaboration in course design and the scholarship of teaching and learning
ABSTRACT: This essay describes the process of using a team of faculty and undergraduate students to redesign a university course, and outlines the research we conducted on student and faculty learning from the redesign process. We focus particular attention on power relations and issues of expertise, raising questions with implications for faculty who wish to engage students in similar course design projects, regardless of academic discipline, and who partner with undergraduates in Scholarship of Teaching and Learning research.
Mihans, R., Long, D., & Felten, P. 2008 . Power and Expertise: Student-faculty collaboration in course design and the scholarship of teaching and learning. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2, 2.
Lingnan Library record: http://library.ln.edu.hk/record=b1553635~S3
HKALL record for ebook: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15436346
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b15727562
A call for expanding inclusive student engagement in SoTL
ABSTRACT: Scholars in higher education increasingly recognize the transformative potential of student-faculty partnerships focused on inquiry into teaching and learning. However, some students tend to be privileged in SoTL initiatives while others are discouraged, implicitly or explicitly, from engaging in this work. In this paper, we consider why certain students tend to be excluded from SoTL, summarize the possible developmental gains made by students and faculty when diverse student voices are included, and highlight strategies for generating a more inclusive SoTL. We call for expanding student engagement in SoTL by encouraging a diversity of student voices to engage in co-inquiry with faculty. Inclusive engagement has tremendous potential to enhance student and faculty learning, to deepen SoTL initiatives, and to help redress the exclusionary practices that too often occur in higher education.
Felten, P., Bagg, J., Bumbry, M., Hill, J., Hornsby, K., Pratt, M., and Weller, S. 2013. A call for expanding inclusive student engagement in SoTL. Teaching and Learning Inquiry, 1, 2.

Communities of Practice / Faculty Learning Communities (CoP/FLC)

Building Faculty Learning Communities
Faculty Learning Communities are a fairly recent trend, paralleling student learning communities which have fostered greater achievement of general education and liberal arts outcomes. This book serves as a good introduction to the subject, with introductory and overview chapters giving history, definition and overviews of FLCs, and the remaining 11 chapters covering many different aspects of and considerations to take into account when developing FLCs.
Cox, Milton Dl & Laurie Richlin (Eds) (2004) Building Faculty Learning Communities. San Francisco, Calif. : Jossey-Bass
Click here to download the table of contents
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b24581750
The Advancement of Learning: Building the Teaching Commons
This book introduces and answers many questions about the scholarship of teaching and learning. It also focuses on the building of a ‘teaching commons’ (faculty learning communities) where teachers meet together for the purposes of advancing the scholarship and practice of teaching and learning in their own classrooms and schools. It also explains what would be involved for faculty willing to be engaged in such work, and what the benefits would be.
Huber, Mary Taylor & Pat Hutchings (2005) The Advancement of Learning: Building the Teaching Commons. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass
HKALL record http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14487458
Reflective Analysis of Student Work
This book combines the concepts of collaboration within Faculty Learning Communities and teachers’ reflective practice with analysis of assessment of student work as part of an ongoing program of improving teaching and learning in the classroom. It describes this as bringing ‘a different approach to professional development’ which is called the ‘Collaborative Professional Development Process’. It covers both theory and practice, with many examples, tables and sample forms given.
Bella, Norene J.(2004) Reflective Analysis of Student Work. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Corwin Press
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10317131
A Review of Research on the Impact of Professional Learning Communities on Teaching Practice and Student Learning
The authors state, ‘at its core, the concept of a PLC rests on the premise of improving student learning by improving teaching practice.’ (p 82) In this article, the five true characteristics of a PLC/CoP are first elaborated. Then, taking this concept of a PLC, this review covers 11studies of Professional Learning Communities, or Communities of Practice. In all cases, student learning, teaching practice and professional culture were all impacted positively to some degree.
Vescio, Vicki, Dorene Ross & Alyson Adams (2008) A Review of Research on the Impact of Professional Learning Communities on Teaching Practice and Student Learning. In Teaching and Teacher Education 24 (80-91).
For HKALL records for Journal and eJournal, click here .
Want to Improve Teaching? Create Collaborative, Supportive Schools
This article is about improving organizational supports overall for teacher effectiveness. In doing so, it notes a strong link between teacher collaboration and student learning outcomes.
Allensworth, Elaine. (2012) Want to Improve Teaching? Create Collaborative, Supportive Schools. In American Educator , 36 (3), 30-31
Teaching and Learning Connections
Newsletters of the Communities of Practice project by the Centre for Enhancement of Teaching and Learning, Hong Kong University. http://www.cetl.hku.hk/teaching-learning-cop/
Tertiary assessment and higher education student outcomes: Policy, practice & research
From this page you can download a free summary document. The introduction states: This overview is designed for senior academic managers and academic boards who have responsibility for the development, implementation and quality assurance of assessment policy and practice in their tertiary education institutions and organisations (TEOs). The overview draws upon findings from the three year research project Valid and Practical Tertiary Assessment and studies by educationalists presented at the Symposium on Tertiary Assessment and Higher Education Student Outcomes held at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, in November 2008.
https://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/ako-aotearoa/ako-aotearoa/resources/books/tertiary-assessment-higher-education-student-outcomes-poli
Only Connect … The Goals of a Liberal Arts Education
A well-known article listing the ten ideal student outcomes of a Liberal Arts Education.
Cronin, William (1998) Only Connect … The Goals of a Liberal Education. The American Scholar, Volume 67, No. 4, Autumn 1998.
https://www.grinnell.edu/sites/default/files/documents/Cronon_Only_Connect.pdf
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b10600787
HKALL record for eJournal: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b11157414
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b12372226
or http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b21683189
The Quality Imperative
A statement from the Board of Directors of the AACU (Association of American Colleges and Universities) regarding the goals and future of Liberal Education. It argues for a link between liberal education and workforce learning and includes a list of Essential Learning Outcomes as desired by employers as well as definitions of Liberal Education and Liberal Arts.
Association of American Colleges & Universities,  The Quality Imperative: Match Ambitious Goals for College Attainment with an Ambitious Vision for Learning  (Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges & Universities, 2010), 3-6 ; www.aacu.org/about/statements/documents/Quality_Imperative_2010.pdf    
Similar outcomes are referenced in footnote 3 on this page: 
http://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/october-2010/rubrics-for-history-courses-lessons-from-one-campus#note3
Liberal Education and America’s Promise
This website defines Liberal Education and lists its Essential Outcomes plus guidelines on best practice, authentic assessment practices, the economic and civic cases for Liberal Education. and other issues relevant to Liberal Education.
http://www.aacu.org/leap
Our Students’ Best Work: A Framework for Accountability Worthy of our Mission
A statement from the Board of Directors of the AACU, designed to help campuses respond to calls to strengthen and document the quality of student learning. The chapters cover ‘What is to be done’, ‘Focusing on Essential Learning Outcomes,’ ‘Cultivating and Assessing Liberal Education Outcomes,’ ‘Summarizing Results and Reporting to the Public,’ ‘Ten Recommendations for a New Accountability Framework,’ and ‘Do Employers Value Liberal Education? Findings from 2008 Survey of Employers.’
AACU (2008) Our Students’ Best Work: A Framework for Accountability Worthy of our Mission. Washington, D.C. : Association of American Colleges and Universities
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b17607139
HKALL record for 2004 edition: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b14800468
Improving university teaching – learning from constructive alignment by *NOT* mandating it
This weblog by David Jones very thoughtfully draws on John Bigg’s model of 3 levels of teaching and his concept of constructive alignment to conclude that the best and only way to effectively implement OBE is not by mandating it, but rather by teachers somehow being compelled to do regular reflection on their teaching practice.
https://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/02/26/improving-university-teaching-learning-from-constructive-alignment-by-not-mandating-it/
Measuring Learning Outcomes for Programme Improvement: Easier said than done, but well worth the effort
This paper outlines the ten steps taken by a faculty in a university in Hong Kong to implement OBE from top to bottom. In the middle of the paper, a section is included on ‘The Challenge of Making it Happen’ which elaborates on six factors that tended to make faculty resistant to implementing an outcomes-based approach, along with some partial solutions. This is followed by five corresponding ‘Supportive Institutional Forces’ which (at that time) were slowly driving the OBE agenda forward.
Chan, T. S. & Robin S. Snell. 2010. Measuring Learning Outcomes for Programme Improvement: Easier said than done, but well worth the effort. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Higher Education Quality Assurance at Macao Polytechnic Institute, 8-9 Nov, 2010.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19744664
Measuring Learning Outcomes for Programme Improvement: Easier said than done, but well worth the effort
This paper describes very clearly the ten-step practical implementation of OBE in the Faculty of Business in Lingnan University in Hong Kong, showing how it involved major organizational change and investment of resources over a period of several years. This is followed by a section elaborating on six factors that tended to make faculty resistant to implementing an outcomes-based approach, along with some partial solutions. The paper finishes with five corresponding ‘Supportive Institutional Forces’ which (at that time) were slowly driving the OBE agenda forward, then the next steps and further ways forward.
Chan, T. S. & Robin S. Snell. 2010. Measuring Learning Outcomes for Programme Improvement: Easier said than done, but well worth the effort. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Higher Education Quality Assurance at Macao Polytechnic Institute, 8-9 Nov, 2010.
HKALL record: http://hkall.hku.hk/record=b19744664